Improvement in quality of pool water is attained by removal of chemical contents. Swimming pool water pollution is mainly caused by swimmers. The pollutants can be micro organisms, organics and solid particles. Each swimmer carries a large number of micro organisms such as bacteria, virus which can cause disease. Organics come from urine, sweat, and saliva which contain ammonia, urea and amino acids. These react with chlorine and form chloramines which irritate the eyes and skin. Solid particles are due to skin flakes, hair and dust. The water can contain dissolved pollutants that derive from disinfectants and cleansing agents that are used to clean swimming pools. Dissolved pollutants are largely removed by oxidation. Gradual refreshment of swimming pool water removes fully or partially oxidised substances from the circulation system.
As a result of cooling and water uptake, the resistance of the mucous membranes of swimmers can weaken, causing them to become more susceptive to pathogens in swimming pool water and air, and even to pathogens that are present in their own bodies. Microorganisms that enter the water through excretion by swimmers can cause a large variety of conditions. Most pathogenic microorganisms cause diarrhoea or skin rashes. Swimming pool water must undergo treatment, in order to remain clear and clean, free from harmful substances, bacteria, viruses, algae and other pathogens and suitable for use by swimmers.
Swimming pool water is treated by means of various purification steps in a water purification plant. The water first flows through a filter, Filtration removes raw pollutants like hairs, plasters and leaves from water. After that, a flocculant is added, which causes smaller colloids to bind together. Colloids are visible floating particles of organic matter, such as skin flakes, textile fibers, saliva, soap remains, cosmetic products and skin fats. When these pollutants are abundant, they cause turbidity. Presence of undissolved particles cause water turbidity and increase the potassium permanganate (KMnO4) demand of the water.
Swimming pool water is treated by means of various purification steps in a water purification plant. The water first flows through a filter, Filtration removes raw pollutants like hairs, plasters and leaves from water. After that, a flocculant is added, which causes smaller colloids to bind together. Colloids are visible floating particles of organic matter, such as skin flakes, textile fibers, saliva, soap remains, cosmetic products and skin fats. When these pollutants are abundant, they cause turbidity. Presence of undissolved particles cause water turbidity and increase the potassium permanganate (KMnO4) demand of the water. Potassium permanganate is used as an indicator of organic matter oxidation. Floating particles are removed from water in a sand filter. The sand filter is back flushed periodically. Finally, pollutants are discharged into the sewer.
These water ozonator helps swimming pools and spa making water pure, sparkling clean and crystal clear. The Ozone Swimming Pool installation consists of an ozonator, ozone injector and air dryer. Ozone is generated on site, using corona discharge technique. This ozone is mixed in to the swimming pool water using venturi. Installing this equipment in public pool is expensive but the benefits of healthier water; savings in maintenance time and money repays the original cost many times over. Most importantly, operating cost of using ozone is low.
Bacteria kill rate is up to three thousand times faster with ozone as compared to chlorine. It is 50% stronger oxidiser than chlorine thereby reducing traditional chemical use between 60% – 90%. It reduces constant purchasing, handling and storage of unsafe and harmful chemicals and protects from their dangerous by-products. It removes unpleasant chlorine / chloramines odours and thus eliminates red, irritated eyes and dry, itchy skin typical of non-ozonated pool. Ozone removes colours, odours, turbidity and reduces TDS. Ozone is a good micro flocculation agent. Ozone has no adverse effects on health or environment. Ozone is generated on site and does not require storage. Ozone systems can also be used as the pre-treatment system to remove iron, sulphur, manganese, colour, bacteria, taste and odor. This will keep polishing systems such as RO, softeners, and carbon filters from fouling. It improves filter and coagulant capacities. This leads to reduction in coagulant use and less backwashing of the filter. Waste (Backwash) water does not require any treatment.
The size of an ozone generator for a particular pool is calculated by taking into account the quantity of water in m3, filtration capacity in m3/ hr and load or max swimmers in the pool at a particular time.
Ozonation V/s. Chlorination Treatment
- 100 year old & outdated Technique
- Chlorine chemical reaction dependent on pH & Temp. of water
- Chlorine is lesser faster than ozone
- Chlorine leaves harmful byproducts in the water
- Chemical water treatment leaves long- term Chemical effects on environment
- Chlorine has less oxidant power
- Chlorine cannot give practical safe doses
- Chlorine chemical require storage facility
- Chlorine leaves chlorinated smell and taste to water
- Chlorine dissolved in water will irritate skin, nose or ears & leaves chemical film on skin
- Chlorine has oxidational potential in water is 1.36
- Effects of chlorine on bacteria, viruses is moderate
- Chlorine is not environment friendly
- Chlorine is good colour removal
- Organics oxidation is moderate
- Chlorine has not micro flocculation property
- Half life of chlorine in water is 2 – 3 hrs
- Carcinogen formation is likely
- Chlorine cannot remove lead metal
- Operational cost of using chlorine is moderate
- Ozone has been known for more than one hundred years
- Ozone disinfection qualities are not dependent on pH, nor does the addition of ozone effect pH of water
- Ozone is over 3000 times faster to purify water
- Ozone leaves no harmful by products in the water. Ozone quickly reverts back to oxygen if unused
- Ozone leaves no long term effects on environment
- Ozone oxidation reaction takes place several thousand times faster than chlorine
- Ozone is generated on site and does not require storage
- Chlorine chemical require storage facility
- Ozone leaves no unpleasant chemical taste or smell
- Ozone dissolved in water will not irritate skin, nose or ears, nor will it dry out or leave a chemical film on skin
- Ozone has oxidational potential in water is 2.07
- Effect of ozone on bacteria, viruses is excellent
- Ozone is environment friendly
- Ozone is excellent colour removal
- Carcinogen formation is unlikely
- Organics oxidation is high
- Ozone is a good micro flocculation agent
- Half life of ozone in water is 20 mins.
- Ozone can remove lead metal
- Operating cost of using ozone is low